Research Library

Government Reports

  • Beattie, M.H. 1995. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; revision of the special rule for nonessential experimental populations of red wolves in North Carolina and Tennessee. Federal Register 60: 18940-18948. (Beattie 1995)
  • Kelly, B.T., P.S. Miller, and U.S. Seal. (eds). 1999. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Red Wolf (Canis rufus). Apple Valley, MN: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). (Kelly et al. 1999)
  • USFWS. 1989. Red wolf recovery plan. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. (USFWS 1989)
  • USFWS. 1999. Discussion paper – red wolf regulations. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. (USFWS 1999)
  • USFWS. 2007. 5-year status review: summary and evaluation. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2007)
  • USFWS. 2010. Red wolf adaptive management plan FY10-FY12. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2010)
  • USFWS. 2013. Red wolf adaptive management plan FY13-FY15. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2013)
  • Vaughan, M.R. and M.J. Kelly. 2011. Evaluating potential effects of widening US 64 on red wolves in Washington, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties, North Carolina. Final Report. VT-NCDOT Contract No. 09-0776-10. (Vaughan and Kelly 2011)

Hybridization Papers

  • Adams, J.R., B.T. Kelly and L.P. Waits. 2003. Using faecal DNA sampling and GIS to monitor hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans). (Adams et al. 2003)
  • Adams, J.R., C. Lucash, L. Schutte and L.P. Waits. 2007. Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping. Molecular Ecology 16: 1823-1834. (Adams et al. 2007)
  • Bohling, J.H., J. Dellinger, J.M. McVey, D.T. Cobb, C.E. Moorman and L.P. Waits. 2016. Describing a developing hybrid zone between red wolves and coyotes in eastern North Carolina, USA. Evolutionary Applications 10.1111/eva.12388. (Bohling et al. 2016)
  • Bohling, J.H. and L.P. Waits. 2011. Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery in North Carolina. Molecular Ecology 20: 2142-2156. (Bohling and Waits 2011)
  • Bohling, J.H. and L.P. Waits. 2015. Factors influencing red wolf-coyote hybridization in eastern North Carolina, USA. Biological Conservation 184: 108-116. (Bohling and Waits 2015)
  • Bohling, J.H., J.R. Adams and L.P. Waits. 2013. Evaluating the ability of Bayesian clustering methods to detect hybridization and introgression using an empirical red wolf data set. Molecular Ecology 22: 74-86. (Bohling et al. 2013)
  • Brzeski, K. E., M. B. DeBiasse, D. R. Rabon, Jr., M. J. Chamberlain, and S. S. Taylor. 2016. Mitochondrial DNA variation in southeastern pre-Columbian canids. Journal of Heredity 107: 287–293. (Brzeski et al. 2016)
  • Gese, E.M. and P.A. Terletzky. 2015. Using the “placeholder” concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore. Biological Conservation 192: 11-19. (Gese and Terletzky 2015)
  • Gese, E.M., F.F. Knowlton, J.R. Adams, K. Beck, T.K. Fuller, D.L. Murray, T.D. Steury, M.K. Stoskopf, W.T. Waddell, and L.P. Waits. 2015. Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: the red wolf Canis rufus as a case study. Current Zoology 61: 191-205. (Gese et al. 2015)
  • Fredrickson, R.J. and P.W. Hedrick. 2006. Dynamics of hybridization and introgression in red wolves and coyotes. Conservation Biology 20: 1272-1283. (Fredrickson and Hedrick 2006)
  • Hinton, J.W. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2014. Morphometrics of Canis taxa in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Mammalogy 95: 855-861. (Hinton and Chamberlain 2014)
  • Hinton, J.W., M.J. Chamberlain and D.R. Rabon, Jr. 2013. Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: a review with suggestions for future research. Animals 3: 722-744. (Hinton et al. 2013)
  • Hinton, J.W., D.R. Rabon Jr. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2015. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management: a response to Way (2014). Canid Biology and Conservation 18: 22-26. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Hinton, J.W., K.E. Brzeski, D.R. Rabon, Jr. and M.C. Chamberlain. 2015. Effects of anthropogenic mortality on critically endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implication for red wolf recovery. Oryx doi:10.1017/S0030605315000770. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Kelly, B.T., P.S. Miller and U.S. Seal. (eds). 1999. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Red Wolf (Canis rufus). Apple Valley, MN: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). (Kelly et al. 1999)
  • Kyle, C.J., A.R. Johnson, B.R. Patterson, P.J. Wilson, K. Shami, S.K. Grewal and B.N. White. 2006. Genetic nature of eastern wolves: past, present, and future. Conservation Genetics 7: 273-287. (Kyle et al. 2006)
  • Miller, C.R., J.R. Adams and L.P. Waits. 2003. Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population. Molecular Ecology 12: 3287-3301. (Miller et al. 2003)
  • Murray, D.L., G. Bastille-Rousseau, J.R. Adams and L.P. Waits. 2015. The challenges of red wolf recovery conservation and the fate of an endangered species recovery program. Conservation Letters 8: 338-344. (Murray et al. 2015)
  • Way, J.G. and W.S. Lynn. 2016. Northeastern coyote/coywolf taxonomy and admixture: A meta-analysis. Canid Biology and Conservation 19:(1):1-7. (Way et al. 2016)
  • Way, J.G. 2014. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management. Canid Biology and Conservation 17: 9-15. (Way 2014)

Inbreeding and Disease Papers

  • Brzeski, K.E., D.R. Rabon, Jr., M.J. Chamberlain, L.P. Waits, and S.S. Taylor. 2014. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus). Molecular Ecology 23: 4241-4255. (Brzeski et al. 2014)
  • Brzeski, K.E., R.B. Harrison, W.T. Waddell, K.N. Wolf, D.R. Rabon, Jr., and S.S. Taylor. 2015. Infectious disease and red wolf conservation: assessment of disease occurrence and associated risks. Journal of Mammalogy 96: 751-761. (Brzeski et al. 2015)
  • Henson, L.H., N. Songsasen, W. Waddell, K.N. Wolf, L. Emmons, S. Gonzalez, E. Freeman and J. Maldonado. Characterization of genetic variation and basis of inflammatory bowel disease in the Toll-like receptor 5 gene of the red wolf and the maned wolf. Endangered Species Research 32: 135-144. (Henson et al. 2017)
  • Hinton, J.W., M.J. Chamberlain and D.R. Rabon, Jr. 2013. Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: a review with suggestions for future research. Animals 3: 722-744. (Hinton et al. 2013)
  • Hinton, J.W., D.R. Rabon Jr. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2015. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management: a response to Way (2014). Canid Biology and Conservation 18: 22-26. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Kalinowski, S.T., P.W. Hedrick, and P.S. Miller. 1999. No inbreeding depression observed in Mexican and red wolf captive breeding programs. (Kalinowski et al. 1999)
  • Lockyear, K.M., W.T. Waddell, K.L. Goodrowe and S.E. MacDonald. 2009. Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding. Zoo Biology 28:214-229. (Lockyear et al. 2009)
  • Rabon, Jr., D.R. 2014. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of captive red wolves (Canis rufus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 92: 251-258. (Rabon 2014)
  • [Rabon, Jr., D.R. and W. Waddell. 2010. Effects of inbreeding on reproductive success, performance, litter size, and survival of captive red wolves (Canis rufus). Zoo Biology 29: 36-49. (Rabon and Waddell 2010)
  • Seeley, K.E., M.M. Garner, W.T. Waddell and K.N. Wolf. 2016. A survey of diseases in captive red wolves (Canis rufus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 47(1): 83-90. (Seeley et al. 2016)
  • Sparkman, A.M., J.R. Adams, T.D. Steury, L.P. Waits, and D.L. Murray. 2012. Pack social dynamics and inbreeding avoidance in the cooperatively breeding red wolf. Behavioral Ecology 23: 1186-1194. (Sparkman et al.2012)
  • USFWS. 1989. Red wolf recovery plan. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. (USFWS 1989)
  • Way, J.G. 2014. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management. Canid Biology and Conservation 17: 9-15. (Way 2014)

Management and Conservation Papers

  • Adams, J.R. and L.P. Waits. 2007. An efficient method for screening faecal DNA genotypes and detecting new individuals and hybrids in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area. Conservation Genetics 8: 123-131. (Adams and Waits 2007)
  • Adams, J.R., B.T. Kelly and L.P. Waits. 2003. Using faecal DNA sampling and GIS to monitor hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans). (Adams et al. 2003)
  • Adams, J.R., C. Lucash, L. Schutte and L.P. Waits. 2007. Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping. Molecular Ecology 16: 1823-1834. (Adams et al. 2007)
  • Bartel, R. A., and D. R. Rabon, Jr. 2013. Re-introduction and recovery of the red wolf (Canis rufus) in the southeastern USA. Pages 107–115 in P. Soorae, editor. Global re-introduction perspectives. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (Bartel and Rabon 2013)
  • Beattie, M.H. 1995. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; revision of the special rule for nonessential experimental populations of red wolves in North Carolina and Tennessee. Federal Register 60: 18940-18948. (Beattie 1995)
  • Beck, K.B., C.F. Lucash, and M.K. Stoskopf. 2009. Lack of impact of den interference on neonatal red wolves. Southeastern Naturalist 8: 631-638. (Beck et al. 2009)
  • Bohling, J.H. and L.P. Waits. 2011. Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery in North Carolina. Molecular Ecology 20: 2142-2156. (Bohling and Waits 2011)
  • Bohling, J.H. and L.P. Waits. 2015. Factors influencing red wolf-coyote hybridization in eastern North Carolina, USA. Biological Conservation 184: 108-116. (Bohling and Waits 2015)
  • Brzeski, K.E., D.R. Rabon, Jr., M.J. Chamberlain, L.P. Waits, and S.S. Taylor. 2014. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus). Molecular Ecology 23: 4241-4255. (Brzeski et al. 2014)
  • Brzeski, K.E., R.B. Harrison, W.T. Waddell, K.N. Wolf, D.R. Rabon, Jr., and S.S. Taylor. 2015. Infectious disease and red wolf conservation: assessment of disease occurrence and associated risks. Journal of Mammalogy 96: 751-761. (Brzeski et al. 2015)
  • Carley, C.J. 2000. The Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery Program: things they didn’t tell me in school. Fort Hays Studies S1: 125-141. (Carley 2000)
  • Center for Biological Diversity (2016). Comments regarding five-year status review of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's red wolf program. (CBD 2016)
  • Chapron, G. and A. Treves. 2016. Blood does not buy goodwill: Allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore. Proceedings Royal Society Bulletin 283: 20152939. (Chapron et al. 2016)
  • Dellinger, J.A., C. Proctor, T.D. Steury, M.J. Kelly, and M.R. Vaughan. 2013. Habitat selection of a large carnivore, the red wolf, in a human-altered landscape. Biological Conservation 157: 324-330. (Dellinger et al. 2013)
  • Fredickson, R.J. and P.W. Hedrick. 2006. Dynamics of hybridization and introgression in red wolves and coyotes. Conservation Biology 20: 1272-1283. (Fredrickson and Hedrick 2006)
  • Gese, E.M. and P.A. Terletzky. 2015. Using the “placeholder” concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore. Biological Conservation 192: 11-19. (Gese and Terletzky 2015)
  • Gese, E.M., F.F. Knowlton, J.R. Adams, K. Beck, T.K. Fuller, D.L. Murray, T.D. Steury, M.K. Stoskopf, W.T. Waddell, and L.P. Waits. 2015. Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: the red wolf Canis rufus as a case study. Current Zoology 61: 191-205. (Gese et al. 2015)
  • Gilbreath, J.D. and V.G. Henry. 1998. Red wolf recovery: regulation and private lands in northeastern North Carolina. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 63: 451-456. (Gilbreath and Henry 1998)
  • Hedrick, P.W. and R.J. Fredrickson. 2008. Captive breeding and the reintroduction of Mexican and red wolves. Molecular Ecology 17: 344-350. (Hedrick and Fredrickson 2008)
  • Hinton, J.W. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2014. Morphometrics of Canis taxa in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Mammalogy 95: 855-861. (Hinton and Chamberlain 2014)
  • Hinton, J.W., M.J. Chamberlain and D.R. Rabon, Jr. 2013. Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: a review with suggestions for future research. Animals 3: 722-744. (Hinton et al. 2013)
  • Hinton, J.W., D.R. Rabon Jr. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2015. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management: a response to Way (2014). Canid Biology and Conservation 18: 22-26. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Hinton, J.W., K.E. Brzeski, D.R. Rabon, Jr. and M.C. Chamberlain. 2015. Effects of anthropogenic mortality on critically endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implication for red wolf recovery. Oryx doi:10.1017/S0030605315000770. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Kalinowski, S.T., P.W. Hedrick, and P.S. Miller. 1999. No inbreeding depression observed in Mexican and red wolf captive breeding programs. Conservation Biology 13: 1371-1377. (Kalinowski et al. 1999)
  • Kelly, B.T., P.S. Miller, and U.S. Seal. (eds). 1999. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Red Wolf (Canis rufus). Apple Valley, MN: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). (Kelly et al. 1999)
  • Lash, G.Y.B and P. Black. 2005. Red wolves: Creating economic opportunity through ecotourism in rural North Carolina. Defenders of Wildlife. (Lash and Black)
  • McLellan, S.R. and D.R. Rabon, Jr. 2006. Translocating red wolves using a modified soft-release technique. Canid News 9: 1-10. (McLellan and Rabon 2006)
  • Miller, C.R., J.R. Adams and L.P. Waits. 2003. Pedigree-based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population. Molecular Ecology 12: 3287-3301. (Miller et al. 2003)
  • Murray, D.L., G. Bastille-Rousseau, J.R. Adams and L.P. Waits. 2015. The challenges of red wolf recovery conservation and the fate of an endangered species recovery program. Conservation Letters 8: 338-344. (Murray et al. 2015)
  • Phillips, M. K., G. W. Henry, and B. T. Kelly. 2003. Restoration of the Red Wolf. Pages 272–288 in L. D. Mech and L. Boitani, editors. Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. (Phillips et al. 2003)
  • Rabon, Jr., D.R. 2014. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of captive red wolves (Canis rufus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 92: 251-258. (Rabon 2014)
  • Rabon, Jr., D.R. and W. Waddell. 2010. Effects of inbreeding on reproductive success, performance, litter size, and survival of captive red wolves (Canis rufus). Zoo Biology 29: 36-49. (Rabon and Waddell 2010)
  • Southern Environmental Law Center. 2016. Comments regarding five-year status review of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's red wolf program. (SELC 2016)
  • Treves, A. and C. Bonacic. In press. Humanity's dual response to dogs and wolves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. (Treves in press)
  • USFWS. 1989. Red wolf recovery plan. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. (USFWS 1989)
  • USFWS. 1999. Discussion paper – red wolf regulations. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. ([USFWS 1999)
  • USFWS. 2007. 5-year status review: summary and evaluation. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2007)
  • USFWS. 2010. Red wolf adaptive management plan FY10-FY12. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2010)
  • USFWS. 2013. Red wolf adaptive management plan FY13-FY15. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2013)
  • Way, J.G. 2014. Strategies for red wolf recovery and management. Canid Biology and Conservation 17: 9-15. (Way 2014)
  • WMI. 2014. A comprehensive review and evaluation of the Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery Program. Wildlife Management Institute, Inc. (WMI 2014)

Space Use, Diet, Morphology and Population Papers

  • Chadwick, J.C., B. Fazio, and M. Karlin. 2010. Effectiveness of GPS-based telemetry to determine temporal changes in habitat use and home-range sizes of red wolves. Southeastern Naturalist 9: 303-316. (Chadwick et al. 2010)
  • Dellinger, J.A., J.M. McVey, D.T. Cobb, and C.E. Moorman. 2011. Diameter thresholds for distinguishing between red wolf and other canid scat. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35: 416-420. (Dellinger et al. 2011)
  • Dellinger, J.A., B.L. Ortman, T.D. Steury, J. Bohling, and L.P. Waits. 2011. Food habits of red wolves during pup-rearing season. Southeastern Naturalist 10: 731-740. (Dellinger et al. 2011)
  • Dellinger, J.A., C. Proctor, T.D. Steury, M.J. Kelly, and M.R. Vaughan. 2013. Habitat selection of a large carnivore, the red wolf, in a human-altered landscape. Biological Conservation 157: 324-330. (Dellinger et al. 2013)
  • Hinton, J.W. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2010. Space and habitat use by a red wolf pack and their pups during pup-rearing. Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 55-58. (Hinton and Chamberlain 2010)
  • Hinton, J.W. and M.J. Chamberlain. 2014. Morphometrics of Canis taxa in eastern North Carolina. Journal of Mammlogists 95: 855-861. (Hinton and Chamberlain 2014)
  • Hinton, J.W., K.E. Brzeski, D.R. Rabon, Jr., and M.J. Chamberlain. 2015. Effects of anthropogenic mortality on critically endangered red wolf Canis rufus breeding pairs: implications for red wolf recovery. Oryx: doi:10.1017/S0030605315000770. (Hinton et al. 2015)
  • Hinton, J.W., C. Proctor, M.J. Kelly, F.T. van Manen, M.R. Vaughan and M.J. Chamberlain. 2016. Space use and habitat selection by resident and transient red wolves (Canis rufus). PLoS ONE 11 (12): e0167603. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0167603 (Hinton et al. 2016)
  • Hinton, J.W., G.C White, D.R. Rabon, Jr., and M.J. Chamberlain. 2017. Survival and population size estimates of the red wolf. The Journal of Wildlife Management; DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21206 (Hinton et al. 2017)
  • Hinton, J.W., A.K. Ashley, J.A. Dellinger, J.L. Gittleman, F.T. vanManen and M.J. Chamberlain. 2017. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes. Journal of Mammalogy (in press). (Hinton et al. 2017)
  • Karlin, M. and J. Chadwick. 2012. Red wolf natal dispersal characteristics: comparing periods of population increase and stability. Journal of Zoology 286: 266-276. (Karlin and Chadwick 2012)
  • McVey, J.M., D.T. Cobb, R.A. Powell, M.K. Stoskopf, J.H. Bohling, L.P. Waits, and C.E. Moorman. 2013. Diets of sympatric red wolves and coyotes in northeastern North Carolina. Journal of Mammalogy 94: 1141-1148. (McVey et al. 2013)
  • Murray, D.L., G. Bastille-Rousseau, J.R. Adams, and L.P. Waits. 2014. The Challenges of red wolf conservation and the fate of an endangered species recovery program. Conservation Letters: doi: 10.1111/conl.12157. (Murray et al. 2014)
  • Phillips, M. K., G. W. Henry, and B. T. Kelly. 2003. Restoration of the Red Wolf. Pages 272–288 in L. D. Mech and L. Boitani, editors. Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. (Phillips et al. 2003)
  • Roth, J.D., D.L. Murray, and T.D. Steury. 2008. Spatial dynamics of sympatric canids: modeling the impacts of coyotes of red wolf recovery. Ecological Modelling 214: 391-403. (Roth et al. 2008)
  • Russell, D.N. and J.H. Shaw. 1972. Distribution and relative density of the red wolf in Texas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 25: 131-137. (Russell and Shaw 1972)
  • Sparkman, A.M., J. Adams, A. Beyer, T.D. Steury, L. Waits, and D.L. Murray. 2010. Helper effects on pup lifetime fitness in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1921. (Sparkman et al. 2010)
  • Sparkman, A.M., J.R. Adams, T.D. Steury, L.P. Waits, and D.L. Murray. 2011. Direct fitness benefits of delayed dispersal in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Behavioral Ecology 22: 199-205. (Sparkman et al. 2011)
  • Sparkman, A.M., L.P. Waits, and D.L. Murray. 2011. Social and demographic effects of anthropogenic mortality: a test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in the red wolf. PLoS One 6: e20868. (Sparkman et al. 2011)
  • USFWS. 2007. 5-year status review: summary and evaluation. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Manteo, North Carolina. (USFWS 2007)

Taxonomy Papers

  • Brownlow, C.A. 1996. Molecular taxonomy and the conservation of the red wolf and other endangered carnivores. Conservation Biology 10: 390-396. (Brownlow 1996)
  • Brzeski, K.E., M.B. DeBiasse, D.R. Rabon Jr., M.J. Chamberlain, and S.S. Taylor. 2016. Mitochondrial DNA variation in southeastern pre-Columbian canids. Journal of Heredity 107: 287-293. (Brzeski et al. 2016)
  • Gardner, A.L. 1998. Red wolf specimen identity. Conservation Biology 12: 499-501. (Gardner 1998)
  • Gittleman, J.L. and S.L. Pimm. 1991. Crying wolf in North America. Nature 351: 524-525. (Gittleman and Pimm 1991)
  • Hedrick, P.W., R.N. Lee, and D. Garrigan. 2002. Major histocompatibility complex variation in red wolves: evidence for common ancestry with coyotes and balancing selection. Molecular Ecology 11: 1905-1913. (Hedrick et al. 2002)
  • Hinton, J.W., M.J. Chamberlain, and D.R. Rabon Jr. 2013. Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: a review with suggestions for future research. Animals 3: 722-744. (Hinton et al. 2013)
  • Kyle, C.J., A.R. Johnson, B.R. Patterson, P.J. Wilson, K. Shami, S.K. Grewal, and B.N. White. Genetic nature of eastern wolves: past, present, and future. Conservation Genetics 7: 273-287. (Kyle et al. 2006)
  • McCarley, H. 1962. The taxonomic status of wild Canis (Canidae) in the south central United States. Southwestern Naturalist 7: 227-235. (McCarley 1962)
  • Mech, L.D. and R.M. Nowak. 2010. Systematic status of wild Canis in north-central Texas. Southeastern Naturalist 9: 587-594. (Mech and Nowak 2010)
  • Murray, D.L. and L.P. Waits. 2007. Taxonomic status and conservation strategy of the endangered red wolf: a response to Kyle et al. (2006). Conservation Genetics 8: 1483-1485. (Murray and Waits 2007)
  • Nowak, R.M. 1979. North American Quaternary Canis. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. (online)
  • Nowak, R.M. 1992. The red wolf is not a hybrid. Conservation Biology 6: 593-595. (Nowak 1992)
  • Nowak, R.M. 1995. Hybridization: the double-edged threat. Canid News 3: 2-6. (Nowak 1995)
  • Nowak, R.M. 1995. Another look at wolf taxonomy. Pages 375-397 in L.H. Carbyn, S.H. Fritts, D.R. Seip, editors. Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Edmonton, Canada. ([Nowak 1995)
  • Nowak, R.M. 2002. The original status of wolves in eastern North America. Southeastern Naturalist 1(2): 95-130. (Nowak 2002)
  • Nowak, R.M. 2003. Wolf evolution and taxonomy. Pages 239-258 in L.D. Mech et al. (eds.), Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, University of Chicago Press. (Nowak 2003)
  • Nowak, R.M. 2009. Taxonomy, morphology, and genetics of wolves in the Great Lakes region. Pages 233-250 in A.P. Wydeven et al. (eds.), Recovery of Gray Wolves in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Spring Science+Business Media. (Nowak 2009)
  • Nowak, R.M. and N.E. Federoff. 1998. Validity of the red wolf: response to Roy et al. Conservation Biology 12: 722-725. (Nowak and Federoff 1998)
  • Paradiso, J.L. 1968. Canids recently collected in East Texas, with comments on the taxonomy of the red wolf. American Midland Naturalist 80: 529-534. (Paradiso 1968)
  • Paradiso, J.L. and R.M. Nowak. 1972. Canis rufus. Mammalian Species 22: 1-4. (Paradiso and Nowak 1972)
  • Paradiso, J.L. and Nowak, R.M. 1973. New data on the red wolf in Alabama. Journal of Mammalogy 54: 506-509. (Paradiso and Nowak 1973)
  • Phillips, M.K. and V.G. Henry. 1992. Comments on red wolf taxonomy. Conservation Biology 6: 596-599. (Phillips and Henry 1992)
  • Reich, D.E., R.K. Wayne and D.B. Goldstein. 1999. Genetic evidence for a recent origin by hybridization of red wolves. Molecular Ecology 8: 139-144. (Reich et al. 1999)
  • Rutledge, L.Y., P.J. Wilson, C.F.C. Klütsch, B.R. Patterson, and B.N. White. 2012. Conservation genomics in perspective: a holistic approach to understanding Canis evolution in North America. Biological Conservation 155: 186-192. (Rutledge et al. 2012)
  • Rutledge, L.Y., S. Devillard, J.Q. Boone, P.A. Hohenlohe, and B.N. White. 2015. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis. Biology Letters 11: 20150303. (Rutledge et al. 2015)
  • vonHoldt, B.M., J.P. Pollinger, D.A. Earl, J.C. Knowles, A.R. Boyko, H. Parker, E. Geffen, M. Pilot, W. Jedrzejewski, B. Jedrzejewski, V. Sidorovich, C. Greco, E. Randi, M. Musiani, R. Kays, C.D. Bustamante, E.A. Ostrander, J. Novembre, and R.K. Wayne. 2011. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids. Genome Research 21: 1294-1305. (vonHoldt et al. 2011)
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